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Papers

Rationalising antibiotic use to limit antibiotic resistance in India, Indian Journal of Medical Research

The paper published in the Indian Journal of Medical Research in September 2011, suggested recommendations, highlighting priority areas that could help in controlling the spread of antibiotic resistance, improving public health, and reducing pressure on the healthcare system. The paper was authored by Global Antibiotic Resistance Partnership (GARP) - India Working Group. Both human health and veterinary side members of RCZI Joint Working Group co-authored this publication. To read more, click here

Developing one health approaches in India, OneHealth Congress

Presented at the 1st International OneHealth Congress in 2011 in Australia, the paper examined the relevance, constraints and approaches related to the OneHealth model in India. With increasing risk of infectious diseases at the human-animal-environment interface, OneHealth is being increasingly recognised as the most suitableapproach to face emerging zoonotic threats. Strong political will, evidence-based policy innovations, clearly defined roles and responsibilities of agencies, coordination mechanisms at all levels, and a culture of open information exchange, rooted in the OneHealth’ approach are seen as factors that can contributeto the early success of these models.The presentationwas authored by Dr. Manish Kakkar and Dr. Syed Abbas. To read more, click here

Identifying research priorities for zoonoses research in India

Presented at 1st International OneHealth Congress in 2011, the paper identifies priority areas and examines the multisectoral and system-based determinants of priority research on zoonoses. The presentation described how this exercise allowed preparation of strategic research agenda to inform systemic interventions for zoonoses prevention and control. The paper was authored by Drs. Syed Abbas, NitinSekar, NamanShah and Manish Kakkar.
To read more, click here

One health moving from concept to reality

Lancet Infectious Disease, 2011 Nov;11(11):808 published a letter authored by Drs. Manish Kakkar and Syed Abbas. The paper highlighted the importance of local needs and priorities to form the basis of research agendas for emerging zoonoses, such as large knowledge gaps that exist in epidemiological research in India and other developing countries. To read more, click here

Dengue fever is massively under reported in India, hampering our response, BMJ

With a dengue outbreak in India, and a large media reaction to individual cases, medical preparedness and government response, Dr. Manish Kakkar was commissioned by the BMJ to share his personal views on the under-reporting of denguefever. The short paper published in BMJ in the December2012 issue looked at some of the pressing technical, operational and political dimensions of under-reporting, suggesting best practices in dengue surveillance. It talked of the transparent disease reporting system, improved assessment of burden, simplified case reporting and rapid turnaround of results, amongst others. To read more, click here

Rabies Control Initiative in Tamil Nadu, India a Test Case for ‘One Health’ Approach, International Health

 

The paper, published in the International Health, 2011, reviewed research output on rabies from India and examined its alignment with national policy priorities. It highlighted gaps between rabies research and policy needs, making the case for developing a strategic research agenda that focused on rabies control as an expected outcome. The paper was authored by Abbas SS, Venkataramanan V, Pathak G, Kakkar M. Click here to access the document.
Click here to access

 

Systems Thinking Needed for Rabies Control, The Lancet

 

The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2013; 381 (9862): 200 published the above story in their  January 2013 edition. It talked of intra dermal rabies vaccination’s promotion as a solution for rabies control. Most rabies research focuses on biomedical solutions to complex systemic challenges. A letter to the editor by Abbas SS and Kakkar M emphasised the need for the research community to understand systemic challenges facing development of effective and practical solutions for rabies. Click here to access

 

"Zoonoses? Not Sure What That Is,"Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

 

A study based on an assessment of knowledge of zoonoses among medical students in India was published in the Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2011, focusing on estimating knowledge of zoonoses among medical students and recent graduates. The paper recognised the changing landscape of infectious diseases and need for revision in current medical curriculum to improve understanding of existing zoonoses/including emerging diseases. The paper was authored by Kakkar M, Ramani S, Menon G, Sankhe L, Gaidhane A, Krishnan SK. Click here to access the document.
Click here to access

 

Influenza Pandemic Preparedness and Response: Review of Legal Frameworks in India, Indian Journal of Public Health

 

The study reviewed India's legal preparedness in the face of an epidemic. The analyses was presented in matrix formats and reviewed by national experts. It concluded that India needs a critical mass of public health legislations to make impact and not police acts to control epidemics. It was authored by Kakkar M, Hazarika S, Zodpey S, Reddy KS and published in 2010. Click here to access

Earlier Papers

Research Options for Controlling Zoonotic Disease in India, 2010–2015


The paper identifies priority zoonotic diseases for India based upon structured interviews with a multidisciplinary group of national experts on zoonoses in India. It also identifies and prioritises research needs for controlling zoonotic diseases in the next five years. Click here to access

Reports


Regional Consultation on One Health in South Asia


New Delhi hosted the second Regional Consultation on One Health Alliance of South Asia (OHASA) on 31st July-1st August, 2012. Experts from Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan reviewed earlier OHASA meetings, shared case studies of national and regional ‘One Health’ initiatives in Asia and developed a roadmap for 2013-14. Click here to access summary of the report

Earlier Reports


Roadmap for preparing National Public Health Laboratory Services Framework

The document outlines the key strategic challenges and a possible roadmap for creation of a National Public Health Laboratory Services Network. Click here to access full report

This report documents RCZI findings from field assessment of rabies control initiative in Tamil Nadu. Click here to access full report

RCZI Brainstorming meeting report

An expert group meeting was held on 13th June 2008 to create a roadmap for combating zoonoses in India.
For reading the full report click here. 



Presentations

RCZI Represented at National and International Forums
 
Key findings and outcomes of some of the studies and initiatives launched under the Roadmap to Combat Zoonoses Initiative (RCZI),have been presented at various prestigious fora. Some of these have been summarised below,
Rabies Control in India: Bridging the Research-Policy Gap
 
  Rabies research in India suffers from a disconnect, especially vis-à-vis the needs of policy makers. In contrast to the identified research priorities around epidemiologic and policy-related issues, bulk of the rabies research conducted in India pertains to basic science research related to development of new interventions. This was the focus of the presentation made by Dr. Manish Kakkar, Senior Infectious Diseases expert, PHFI, at the National Rabies Symposium at NIMHANS, Bangalore, March 25, 2013 and Annual Conference of Consortium against Rabies, New Delhi, April 20, 2013
   
Pathogen Diversity and the Big Picture: Case of Japanese Encephalitis in Northern Uttar Pradesh  
   
  Japanese encephalitis as the aetiology of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in northern Uttar Pradesh has recently been under question and a topic of debate. Several factors such as at the level of health system, including quality of surveillance, virus or pathogen, timely and quality laboratory diagnosis, delivery of interventions, access to care etc. need to be looked into before pathogen diversity can be implicated. Answers to these research questions are important to ensure specificity of public health action. A presentation was made by RCZI at a conference on Pathogen Diversity: Exploiting Pathogen Genetics for New Control Strategies, New Delhi, March 6-7, 2013. This was organised jointly by ICMR, PHFI, ICGEB & London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
   
Research priorities in AES/JE  
   
  Research on acute encephalitis syndrome needs to broaden its focus beyond the pathogen and shift to the big picture that includes knowledge gaps related to the pathogen, host-pathogen interaction, host-immune system interaction, laboratory diagnosis, disease surveillance system, immunization, health care delivery and access as well as the community perceptions and knowledge. Research priorities in AES/JE were highlighted in a presentation made at the 2-day workshop on Disease Surveillance, Laboratory Networking and Other Related Aspects of Japanese Encephalitis, Gurgaon, March 5-6, 2013. The workshop which was organised by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Progamme, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India was mainly for State Programme Officers and those in-charge of the laboratories.  
       
Cost Estimation of a State-level Rabies Control Programme  
       
  The presentation was made by Dr. Syed Shahid Abbas, Senior Research fellow at the 3rd National Conference of Consortium Against Rabies, New Delhi, 20th April, 2013 organised by the University College of Medical Sciences. It described the costs likely to be incurred by the state government in implementing a state-wide population level rabies control programme in Tamil Nadu. It found the current structure of rabies control interventions to be quite expensive, with animal interventions being 25 times the cost of human-side interventions. It identified major driver of these costs and identified measures to bring down programme costs.  

Earlier Presentations

RCZI contributions to collaborative research and capacity building on zoonoses


The presentation was made to visiting teams from IDRC and ILRI in February, 2011. This outlines the strategic vision of RCZI and how it has evolved after its inception. It also describes the experience of the RCZI in conducting collaborative research and capacity building with diverse sectors. Click here to access full presentation

Developing One Health Approaches in India

India has been identified as global hotspot for emergence and spread of EIDs, including zoonoses and those that are likely to arise from wildlife reservoirs. The presentation was delivered at a symposium convened b OHASA (One Health Alliance of South Asia) at the ist International One health Congress in Melbourne on February 14-16. Click here to access full presentation

Identifying research priorities for Zoonoses research in India

The presentation related to the systematic research prioritisation exercise organised by RCZI earlier. It aimed to identify priority areas of research on zoonoses control in India with an implementation perspective and examine the multi-sectoral and systems based determinants of priority research on zoonoses. Click here to access the presentation.

Useful Links

A list of useful web resources on zoonoses have been compiled and listed below:

Thailand uses ‘One Health’ Approach to Control Spread of H5N1

Watch this video



In Thailand, H5N1 virus (Avian flu) was first confirmed in 2003. The video showcases a case study that describes this infectious disease found in chicken and ducks, which rarely passes to humans, but is deadly enough. It establishes the concept/importance of ‘One Health’ to control spread of the virus by focusing on improved surveillance, increased capacity, better collaboration, early detection, proper diagnoses and timely treatment.

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Earlier links

World Health Organization

Webpage lists Information, alerts and institutions working on Zoonoses.
Website:- http://www.who.int/zoonoses/en/

World Organization for Animal Health
Website on animal diseases prevention and control.
Website:- http://www.oie.int

Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Provides information on agriculture, forestry and fisheries.
Website:- http://www.fao.org

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)
The Biological Resources Discipline (BRD) of the USGS provides scientific information on technologies needed to support management and conservation of biological resources.
Website:- http://biology.usgs.gov/

International Veterinary Information Service
Provides free access to information on veterinary medicine
Website:- http://www.ivis.org/home.asp

US CDC's National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases
Provides information on diseases that have been around for many years, emerging diseases (those that are new or just recently identified), and zoonotic diseases (those spread from animals to people) from "One Health" strategy perspective
Website:- http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/

Web Resources On "One Health"

US CDC’s office for One Health
CDC office for coordinating all one health activities, this page provides information about principle one health discussions organised globally
Website: http://cdc.gov/onehealth/

US 'One Health Initiative'
This is an academic collaboration of American Veterinary Medical Association, American Medical Association, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, American Society for Microbiology and CDC. It provides basic information and updates on academic activities in the field of 'One Health' in US.
Website:- http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/

Wildlife Conservation Society
Resource for updates on global developments and activities in the field of 'One Health'.
Website:- http://www.oneworldonehealth.org/

Web Resources on Conservation Medicine

Wildlife Trust of India
Provides information on news, activities and programmes on wildlife conservation in India.
Website:- http://www.wildlifetrustofindia.org/

The Bombay Natural History Society
Dedicated website with information on research, book reviews and publications on nature conservation in the Indian sub-continent.
Website:- http://www.bnhs.org/

Tufts Center for Conservation Medicine
Provides information on latest developments in research, education and training in ecosystem health.
Website:- http://www.tufts.edu/vet/ccm/

Wildlife Trust
Wildlife Trust’s microsite on Conservation Medicine has details on its programmes, projects and publications.
Website:- http://wildlifetrust.org/conservation_medicine/

Consortium for Conservation Medicine
Repository of news, web resources, latest developments in research and peer reviewed publications on conservation medicine.
Website:- http://www.conservationmedicine.org/

Past Stories

Conceptual framework for one Health Research
In a recent article published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Richard Coker and others describe the importance, contours and scope of one health research frameworks.   read more...

1st International One Health Congress
After having moved past the discussions relating to the semantics and disciplinary boundaries on ‘one health’ concept,   read more...

Government announces national policy for containment of antimicrobial resistance
The widespread irrational use of antimicrobials in the Indian health care system and its contribution to emerging drug resistance has often been voiced as a major cause of concern. Several reasons have been cited for this malaise that plagues human, veterinary and agriculture sectors in India. Some of these include regulatory gaps, inability to enforce the existing regulations, over the counter availability of antimicrobials, lack of awareness amongst prescribers and clients.   read more...

One Health Collaborations in Tamil Nadu rabies control initiative: lessons for the future
A recent assessment of rabies in Tamil Nadu conducted by RCZI demonstrated one such model for intersectoral collaboration.  read more...

Conceptual
The widespread irrational use of antimicrobials in the Indian health care system and its contribution to emerging drug resistance has often been voiced as a major cause of concern. Several reasons have been cited for this malaise that plagues human, veterinary and agriculture sectors in India. Some of these include regulatory gaps, inability to enforce the existing regulations, over the counter availability of antimicrobials, lack of awareness amongst prescribers and clients.   read more...

One Health Collaborations in Tamil Nadu rabies control initiative: lessons for the future
A recent assessment of rabies in Tamil Nadu conducted by RCZI demonstrated one such model for intersectoral collaboration.  read more...
 

Making Zoonoses Prevention Part of the National Public Health Agenda
Zoonoses prevention and control prgrammes, in their present form, are examples of changing and expanding set of diseases that fall too often between the cracks of public health, environmental management, public safety and veterinary fields.

Technical capacity constraints, lack of research-informed policy-making and irregular surveillance continue to limit pandemic preparedness plans. Though efforts are underway through interantional organisations and others in the health community, much needs to be done to combat what has become a ‘World problem’
Click here to access the document


People, Pathogens and Oru Planet

A World Bank report on ‘One Health’ approach outlines action points to overcome limitations of the present institutional structure and proposes innovative financing mechanisms
Click here to access the document

Leptospirosis in North India
Serious complications can affect liver, kidneys, lungs and the central nervous system. Greater vigilance is needed, especially during monsoons, according to a recent study
Click here to access the document

'One Health' Developments
The 'One Health' initiative has taken more than 30 years to evolve, emerging as a rich resource pool of countries, think tanks, medical professionals and policy makers who endorse its core philosophy of combating zoonoses through collaborative effort
Click here to access the document


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